I. Vì sao cần có mạng máy tính?

– Hiện nay có rất nhiều người dung máy tính để soạn thảo văn bản, hỗ trợ tính toán, lập chương trình giải các bài toán, lưu giữ thông tin, hoặc chạy các phần mềm phục vụ công việc, học tập hay giải trí.

– Trong quá trình sử dụng, người dung phát sinh nhu cầu dùng chung các tài nguyên máy tính như dữ liệu, phần mềm, máy in, máy quét, bộ nhớ,… từ nhiều máy tính.

– Mạng máy tính ra đời giúp giải quyết các vấn đề trên thuận tiện và nhanh chóng.

II. Khái niệm mạng máy tính

1. Mạng máy tính là gì?

– Mạng máy tính là tập hợp các máy tính được kết nối với nhau cho phép dùng chung các tài nguyên như dữ liệu, phần mềm, các thiết bị phần cứng,…

– Có các kiểu kết nối:

  • Kết nối kiểu hình sao
  • Kết nối kiểu đường thẳng
  • Kết nối kiểu vòng

2. Các thành phần của mạng máy tính

– Mạng máy tính có 4 thành phần:

  • Các thiết bị đầu cuối (máy tính, máy in…)
  • Môi trường truyền dẫn (dây dẫn, sóng điện từ,…)
  • Các thiết bị kết nối mạng (bộ chuyển mạch, môđem,…)
  • Giao thức truyền thông như giao thức TCP/IP

III. Phân loại mạng máy tính

1. Phân loại theo môi trường truyền dẫn

Mạng có dây Mạng không dây (Wifi)
– Mạng có dây sử dụng các môi trường truyền dẫn là các dây dẫn.

– Ví dụ: Ở phòng thực hành, tiệm net,…

– Mạng không dây sử dụng môi trường truyền dẫn là các loại sóng điện từ, bức xạ hồng ngoại,…

– Ví dụ: Ở quán cà phê, khách sạn, siêu thị,…

2. Phân loại theo phạm vi địa lý

Mạng cục bộ Mạng diện rộng
– Các máy tính trong phạm vi hẹp như văn phòng, toà nhà kết nối với nhau à mạng cục bộ.

– Ví dụ: Ở văn phòng nhà trường,…

– Các máy tính trong phạm vi rộng hơn như giữa các huyện trong tỉnh, giữa các thành phố trong nước kết nối với nhau à mạng diện rộng.

– Ví dụ: Máy tính trường kết nối với Phòng GD, Bộ GD,…

 IV. Vai trò của máy tính trong mạng

Máy chủ Máy trạm
– Máy chủ là các máy tính có cấu hình mạnh chứa nhiều dữ liệu, cài đặt đầy đủ các chương trình, trong đó có chương trình quản lí, chia sẻ tài nguyên trong mạng máy tính. – Máy trạm là các máy tính sử dụng tài nguyên do máy chủ cung cấp.

 V. Lợi ích của mạng máy tính

– Dùng chung dữ liệu: các máy tính của hiệu trưởng, hiệu phó, giáo viên, văn thư có thể dùng chung dữ liệu “ Danh sách học sinh” được đặt trong máy hiệu trưởng.

– Dùng chung thiết bị phần cứng: trong một văn phòng có 5 máy tính có thể dùng chung 1 máy in.

– Dùng chung phần mềm: trong một văn phòng nhiều máy tính có thể dùng chung phần mềm Diệt virus có bản quyền.

– Trao đổi thông tin: các máy tính ở xa nhau có thể trao đổi thông tin trực tiếp thông qua thư điện tử, phần mềm trò chuyện trực tiếp (chat).

Bài tập

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  • Bài 3 (SGK trang 10)
  • Bài 4 (SGK trang 10)
  • Bài 5 (SGK trang 10)
  • Bài 6 (SGK trang 10)
  • Bài 7 (SGK trang 10)

374 BÌNH LUẬN

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