1. Internet là gì?

– Internet là mạng máy tính toàn cầu kết nối hàng triệu máy tính và mạng máy tính trên khắp thế giới và sử dụng bộ giao thức truyền thông TCP/IP.

2. Một số ứng dụng của Internet

– Tạo ra 1 phương thức giao tiếp hoàn toàn mới giữa con người với con người. VD: Chat, điện thoại Internet…

– Đảm bảo cho mọi người khả năng thâm nhập đến nhiều nguồn thong tin thường trực, các dịch vụ mua bán, truyền tệp…

3. Kết nối Internet bằng cách nào?

a. Sử dụng modem qua đường điện thoại

– Máy tính cần cài đặt modem qua đường điện thoại.

– Người dùng ký hợp đồng với nhà cung cấp dịch vụ Internet ISP để được cấp quyền truy cập gồm:

  • User name: tên truy cập.
  • Password: mật khẩu.
  • Số điện thoại truy cập

– Cách kết nối này thuận tiện cho người dùng nhưng tốc độ đường truyền không cao.

b. Sử dụng đường truyền riêng

– Thuê đường truyền riêng nối từ máy đến nhà cung cấp dịch vụ.

– Một máy ủy quyền (Proxy) trong mạng LAN được dùng để kết nối với nhà cung cấp dịch vụ Internet.

– Ưu điểm là tốc độ đường truyền cao.

c. Một số phương thức kết nối khác

– Sử dụng đường truyền ADSL (đường thuê bao bất đối xứng)

  • Tốc độ cao hơn kết nối điện thoại.
  • Giá thành ngày càng hạ nên được rất nhiều người lựa chọn.

– Công nghệ không dây Wi – Fi là phương thức kết nối mới nhất, thuận tiện nhất, kết nối mọi nơi, mọi thời điểm. : đt di dộng, máy tính xách tay…

– Dịch vụ kết nối Internet qua đường truyền hình cáp. Chẳng hạn: Truyền hình cáp VTC…

4. Các máy tính trong Internet giao tiếp với nhau bằng cách nào?

– Các máy tính trong Internet hoạt động và trao đổi với nhau đ­uợc là do chúng cùng sử dụng bộ giao thức truyền thông TCP/IP.

a. TCP (Transmisson Control Protocol)

– Là giao thức cho phép hai thiết bị truyền thông trong mạng kết nối với nhau và trao đổi các dòng dữ liệu (đã đóng gói) hoặc thông tin cần truyền.

– Đảm bảo phân chia dữ liệu ở máy gửi thành gói nhỏ có khuôn dạng, kích th­uớc xác định và phục hồi dữ liệu gốc ở máy nhận.

b. IP (Internet Protocol)

– Là giao thức chịu trách nhiệm về địa chỉ và định tuyến đuờng truyền, cho phép các gói tin đi đến đích một cách riêng lẻ, độc lập.

– Nội dung gói tin gồm:

  • Địa chỉ nhận.
  • Địa chỉ gửi.
  • Dữ liệu, độ dài.
  • Các thông tin kiểm soát, phục vụ khác.

5. Làm thế nào gói tin đến đúng người nhận?

– Để gói tin đến đúng máy ngu­ời nhận (máy đích) thì trong gói tin phải có thông tin để xác định máy đích. Mỗi máy tính tham gia vào mạng phải có địa chỉ duy nhất đ­uợc gọi là địa chỉ IP.

– Địa chỉ IP trong Internet: Là một dãy bốn số nguyên phân cách nhau bởi dấu chấm (. ). Ví dụ: 172. 154. 32. 1

=> Để thuận tiện cho ngu­ời dùng địa chỉ IP đ­ược chuyển sang dạng kí tự (tên miền). Ví dụ: http://www.tinhoccuaem.com.vn/
– Các viết tắt tên nước:

  • vn: Việt Nam
  • jp: Nhật Bản
  • fr: Pháp
  • ca: Canada

214 BÌNH LUẬN

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