Bài 6: Bảo vệ thông tin máy tính

1. Vì sao cần bảo vệ thông tin máy tính

– Có rất nhiều lí do khác nhau làm cho thông tin máy tính biến mất một cách không mong muốn

=> Bảo vệ thông tin máy tính là một việc hết sức cần thiết

2. Một số yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến sự an toàn của thông tin máy tính

a. Yếu tố công nghệ – vật lí

– Do lỗi ngẫu nhiên của dây chuyền sản xuất.

– Tuổi thọ của máy tính cũng ảnh hưởng đến sự an toàn thông tin máy tính.

– Lỗi các phần mềm máy tính kể cả HĐH

 b. Yếu tố bảo quản và sử dụng

– Máy tính để ở nơi có nhiệt độ cao, ẩm ướt hoặc bị va chạm mạnh, dòng điện không ổn định có thể làm giảm tuổi thọ của máy tính.

– Khởi động, tắt máy hay thoát khỏi chương trình không hợp lệ có thể dẫn đến mất thông tin trong máy tính.

 c. Virus máy tính

– Xuất hiện trong những năm 80 của thế kỉ XX, virus máy tính trở thành một trong những nguyên nhân gây mất thông tin với những hậu quả nghiêm trọng.

– Như vậy, có nhiều yếu tố ảnh hưởng tới sự an toàn của thông tin máy tính. Để hạn chế ảnh hưởng của các yếu tố đó, ta cần thực hiện các biện pháp đề phòng cần thiết, đặc biệt, cần tập thói quen sao lưu dữ liệu và phòng chống virus máy tính.

– Biện pháp: thường xuyên sao lưu dữ liệu và phòng chống virus máy tính

 3. Virus máy tính và cách phòng tránh

a. Khái niệm

– Virus máy tính (gọi tắt là virus) là một chương trình hay đoạn chương trình có khả năng tự nhân bản hay sao chép chính nó từ đối tượng bị lây nhiễm này sang đối tượng khác mỗi khi đối tượng bị lây nhiễm (vật mang virus) được kích hoạt.

– Vật mang virus có thể là các tệp chương trình, văn bản, bộ nhớ và một số thiết bị máy tính (đĩa cứng, đĩa mềm, …)

b. Tác hại của virus máy tính

– Tiêu tốn tài nguyên hệ thống

– Phá huỷ dữ liệu

– Đánh cắp dữ liệu

– Mã hoá dữ liệu tống tiền

– Phá hủy hệ thống

– Gây khó chịu khác cho người dùng

c. Các con đường lây lan của virus

– Qua việc sao chép tập tin đó bị nhiễm virus.

– Qua các phần mềm bẻ khúa, các phần mềm sao chép lậu.

– Qua các thiết bị nhớ.

– Qua internet, đặc biệt là thư điện tử.

– Qua các “Lỗ hổng” của phần mềm.

d. Phòng tránh virus

– Để phòng tránh virus, bảo vệ dữ liệu, nguyên tắc chung cơ bản nhất là:”Phải cảnh giác và ngăn chặn virus trên chính những đường lây lan của chúng”


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